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????????????????? ??????????? ??????????????

                                  

????./????????????????/?????? - ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ????????????????????????? ????????????????????????????????????????????? ???????????????????????????????? ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????
       
       ?????????????????????????????????????
       
       ???????????????????????????????????????????????? ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????? "???????? ??????????????????????? ?????????????????????? ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ?????????????????????????????????? ????????????????????????? ?????????????????????? "??????? ?????????????????????????????????????????? ??? ????? (Thales) ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ??????????????????????????????????????????????? ???????????? ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????
       
       ???????????????????????????????????? "??" ??????????????? 20 ?????????? ????????????????????????????? ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ?????????????????????????????????????????? ?????????? ?????????????????????????????????????????????? ??????????????? (epicenter) ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? 15 ???????? ????????????????????????????????????????? 400 ????????????
       
       
       ????????????????? ????????????
       
       ?????????????????????????????? ??????????? ???????????????????????? ???????????????????????????????????? ???? ??????????????????????????????????? 70 ???????? ?????????????????????????????????????????????? 10 ???????? ??????????? 0.6% ??????????????????????
       
       ?????????????????????????????????????????????? ???????????? ?????????? (mantle) ??????????????????????????????????????????????????? 7.2 ????????/?????? ????????????????????????????????? ???????????? 8.2 ????????/??????
       
       ?????????????????????????????????????? 2 ?????????? ???????????? (?? : P ? primary) ??? ?????????????? (??? : S - secondary) ???????????????????????????????????????? ?????????????????? ??????????? ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ??????? ??????????????????????????????????????
       
       ????????????????????????? ??????????? ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ????????????????????????????????????????????? ??????? ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ??????????????????????? ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????
       
       ??????????? ????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ???????????? 20 ???? ????????????? ?????????????????? ????????????????????????????????????????????????? ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????
       
       ????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ??????????????????????????????????????????????? ?????????? ?????????????????????????????? ??????????? ??????????????????????????????????????????? ????????????????????????????????????????? ?????????????????????????????? ?????????????????????????????????????????????? ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????
       
       
       "?????????? ??????????????????????????????
       
       ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ?????????? ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ????????????? (Tectonic Force) ???? ?????????????? ?????????????????????????? ?????????????????? ??????????????????????????? (Magma) ??????????????????????????????????? ?????????????????????????? 2 ??? ??? ???????????????????????" (Diastrophism) ??? ?????????????????? ?????? ????????? ???????????????????????????? ??? ????????????????????? (Volcanism) ??????????????????????????????
       
       ??????? ???????????????????????????????????????? ??????????? ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ???????????????????? ??????????????????? ???????????????????????????????????????????? ?????????????????????????? ????????????? (Basin Lake) ????????????????????????????????????
       
       ?????????????????????????????? ???????????????? ???????????????????????????????? ?????????????????????????????? ???????? (Tsunamis) ???????????????????????????????????? (Tidal Wave) ???????????????????????????????????????????????? ???????????????????????????????????????
       
       ????????????????????????? ??????????????
       
       ?????? 95% ?????????????????????????????????????????????????? ????????????????????????????? (Young Mountain) ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ???????????????????????????????????????????? ????????????????????? ???????????????????????????????? (Lines of waekness) ??????? ????????????????????? ???????? ????????????? ??????????????? ???????????????????????????? 12 ???? ???????????? ??????????????? ?????????????????????????????????????????? ???????????????????????????????? 3 ?????? ??????
       
       1. ???????????????? (oceanic ridges) ????????????????????????????????? ???????????????????????????????? ????????????????????????????
       2.???????????????? (transform faults) ???????????????????????????????????
       3.????????????????????? (subduction zones) ?????????????????????????????????? ???????????????????????????????????????? ???????????????????????????? ????????????????????
       
       ??????? ????????????????????????????? ??????????????????????????????? ???????? ??????????????? (triple junction) ??????????????????????????????????????? ??????????????????????? ???????????????????????????????????????????????????? ????????????????????????????????? 3 ??????????? ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? 4 ?????? ???
       
       1.?????????????? ?????????????????????????????????
       2.?????????????? ?????????????????????????????? ???? ????????????????????? ?????????????????????????????????
       3.?????????????? ???????????????????? ???????????????? ??????????????????????????????????? ????????????????????
       4.?????????????? ???????????????????? ???????????????? ?????????????????????????????? ? ???? ??????????????? ???????????????? ???????????????????????????????????????????? ???????????????????
       
       ????? ???????????????? ?????????????????????????????????????????? ?????????????????????? ???????????????????????????? ?????????????????? ????????????????????????????????????? ?????????????????????????????????? ?????????? ???????????????????????? 2 ????????????? ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ???????????????????????? ???????????????? 200 ???? ?????????????????????????????????? ???????????????????????? ????????????????????????????????
       
       ?????????????????????????????????????????????????? ?????????????????????????????????????????? ?????????????????????? ??????????????????????????????????????????? ?????????????????????????????? (fault block ridges) ?????????????????????????????????????????? ??????????????????????????????????????? ?????????????????????????? ????? ??????????????????????????????
       
       ?????????????????????????? ?????????????????????? ??????????????????????????????????????????? ??????????????????????????????????????????????????? ?????????????????????????????????????????? ????????????????????????? ?????????????????????? ???????????????????????????????????????????? ?????????????????????????????????????????????????? ???????????????????????????????????????????
       
       ??????????????????????????????????????
       
       ????????????????????? ????????????????????????????????????????????? 1,000 ????? ??????????????????????? ?????????????????????????????? ??????????????????????????????????????? 50% ????????????????????????????????????? ?????? 50% ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????
       
       ???? (Magnitude) ??????????????????????????????????????????????? ??????????????????????????????????? ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ??????????????????????????????? ????????????????????????????? ? ????????????????????????? ??????????? " ????????"
       
       ???? ?.?. 2178 ???????? (C.F. Richter) ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ???????????????????????????????????????????? ???? ????? 2 ??????? ???????????????????????? ?????????????????? ????? 4 ??????? ????????????????????? ???????? ????? 6 ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ?????????????? ???????? 8.5 ?????????????? ?????????????????????????
       
       ?????????????
       

????
???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????
1-2.9
?????????????????????? ??????????????????????????????????? ???????? ??????????? ?????
3-3.9
?????????????????????? ???????????????????????????????????????????
4-4.9
????????????????????? ????????????????????????????? ??????????? ???????????? ??????????? ?????????????????????
5-5.9
??????????????????????????????????? ???????????? ???????????????????????
6-6.9
??????????????????????? ????????????????? ???????
7.0 ??????
????????????????????? ????? ????????????????????????????????? ?????????? ???????????????????????????????????

       
       ???????????????????????? (Intensity) ?????????????????????????????????????????????????? ??? ??????????????????????????? ??????? ????????????????????? ???? ?????????????????? ?????????????????? ???????????????????????????????????????????? ??????? ????????????????????? ??????????????? ??????????????????????? ????????????? 12 ?????? ?????????????????????????????????????????? ??????
       
       ????????????????
       
?????????
??????????????????????????????
I
???????????????????? ????????????????????
II
??????????????????????????????? ? ?????????? ?
III
?????????????????????????????? ?????????????????????????
IV
??????????????????????????????????????
V
???????????????? ??????????????????????
VI
?????????????????????????????????????????????
VII
????????????? ?????????????????????????????????
VIII
???????????????????????????????
IX
??????????????????????????????? ??????????
X
???????? ????????????
XI
???????????????????????????????????? ???????????????????????????????? ???????????
XII
???????????????? ?????????????????????????

       
       ??????? ?????????????????????????????????????????????? ???????? ??????????? (Seimograph) ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ?????????????????????? ???????????????????????? ????????????????????????????????????????????????????
       
       ????????????????????????????????? ??????? ?.?. 2506 ????????????????????????????????????????????? ??????? ? ???????????????? ???????????????????????????????????????? Worldwide Standardized Seismograph Network : WWSSN ???????????????????????????????????? Incorporated Research Institution of Seismology : IRIS ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ?????????????? ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????
       
       ???????????????????????????????
       
       ???????????????????????????????????????????????? 25 ?? ???????????? ?????????????? ???????????????????????????? (Kobe) ??????????????? ????????????????????????? 17 ?.?. 38 ????????????????? 200,000 ???? ????????????? 6,000 ?? ?????????? 34,000 ??
       
       ????????? ?????????????? (Spitak) ???????????????? (Armenia) ?????????? 7 ?.?. 31 ?????????????????????????? ??????????????????????????????????? 25,000 ?? ???????????????????? ? ?????????????????????????????????? 400 ???????? ?????? 19 ?.?.28 ?????????????? ?????????????? 7,500 ?? ????????????? 20,000 ???????
       
       ????????????????????? ?????? ???????????????????????????? (Tangshan) ????????? ????????????????? 28 ?.?. 19 ?????????????????????? 250,000 ?? ?????????????? 800,000 ?? ????????????????????????????????????????????????? 10 ?? ??????????????????????????????????????????????
       
       ? ?????? ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ??? ? ????? ???????????????? ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ??????? ????????????????????????????? ???????????????
       
       ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ??????????????????????????????? ???????????????????? ????????????????????????? ?????????????????????????? ????????????????????????????????????????????????? ? ???????????? ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????
       
       
       ?????????
       ??????????????????????????????????? (????.)
       ????????????????
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